PBM Startup Papers


Quantifying a Pharmacy Benefit Manager (PBM) Fee-For-Service Business Model (03/19)

IFC Health : An Independent Formulary Company (01 /18)

Will Amazon’s Online Pharmacy Display Therapeutic Interchange (12/17)

Three Phases of the Pharmacy Benefit Manager Business Model (09/17)

The Future of Consumer-Directed Pharmacy Benefits (08/07)

Walgreen’s Transparency Issue (11/03)





Published by Lawrence W. Abrams

Economist, Ph.D. WashU StL, B.A Amherst. I write at the intersection of economics, finance, accounting and high tech. I have been a critic of PBMs since 2003. I have received no remuneration writing these papers.